Complete Sandhi Mnemonic, Explanation, and Examples for स् (-s)

~~~~ Rhymes ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

When at the end, S becomes the visarga.
If met without voice, it converts to that varga.

When met with a voice, S becomes R.
(But don’t let it double, that would take it too far.)

When S comes with A, there’s a few things to test
With consonant voice, make A O and drop S

With vowels, if A is the voice than it too
disappears. If not, only the S has to shoo.

S also might come with a friend called “Long A”
When that happens, again, only S goes away.

~~~~ Explanation ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

“When at the end, S becomes the visarga.”

When स् (s) comes at the end of a word that stands alone or is at the very end of a statement, change it to the visarga, : (ḥ).

“If met without voice, it converts to that varga.”

If स् (s) comes before an unvoiced consonant: Alter the स् (s) to match the वर्ग (varga) of the following consonant.

“When met with a voice, S becomes R.”

If स् (s) comes before a voiced sound (which includes both consonants and vowels, except /a): Change the स् (s) to र् (r).

“(But don’t let it double, that would take it too far.)”

If र्र (rr) results from the above process, drop the first र् (r) and make the previous vowel long.

“When S comes with A, there’s a few things to test”

There are special considerations for अस् (-as)…

“With consonant voice, make A O and drop S”

If अस् (-as) comes before a Voiced Consonant: Change the (a) to (o) and drop the स् (s).

“With vowels, if A is the voice than it too [disappears.]”

If अस् (-as) comes before the (a) vowel, do the same as above, and also drop the following (a).

“If not, only the S has to shoo.”

If अस् (-as) comes before a vowel other than (a), only drop the स् (s), not the vowel.

S also might come with a friend called “Long A”
When that happens, again, only S goes away.

This is a special rule for अास् (-ās). When it comes before any vowel or voiced consonant: just drop the स् (s)

~~~~ Examples ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

“When at the end, S becomes the visarga.”

When स् (s) comes at the end of a word that stands alone or is at the very end of a statement, change it to the visarga, : (ḥ).

अग्निस् = अग्निः

agnis. = agniḥ.

“If met without voice, it converts to that varga.”

If स् (s) comes before an unvoiced consonant: Alter the स् (s) to match the वर्ग (varga) of the following consonant.

रामस् + चलति = रामश्चलति

rāmas + calati = rāmaś-calati

(Rāma wanders)

हरिस् + चलति = हरिश्चलति

haris + calati = hariś-calati

(Hari wanders)

विष्णोस् + छया = विष्णोश्छया

viṣṇos + chayā = viṣṇoś-chayā

(Viṣṇu’s shadow)

/ (ca/cha) is from the palate-group, so the स् (s) becomes the palate-sibilant, श् (ś).

हरिस् + टीकां करोति = हरिष्टीकां करोति

haris + ṭīkāṁ karoti = hariṣ-ṭīkāṁ karoti

(Hari writes a commentary)

(ṭa) is from the roof-group, so the स् (s) becomes the roof-sibilant, ष् (ṣ).

अग्निस् + तीक्ष्णः = अग्निस्तीक्ष्णः

agnis + tīkṣṇaḥ = agnis-tīkṣṇaḥ

(Fire is fierce)

(ta) is from the tooth-group, so the स् (s) remains as the tooth-sibilant, स् (s).

हरिस् + पश्यति = हरिः पश्यति

haris + paśyati = hariḥ paśyati

(Hari sees)

रामस् + पश्यति = रामः पश्यति

rāmas + paśyati = rāmaḥ paśyati

(Rāma sees)

(pa) is from the lip-group, so the स् (s) would become a lip-sibilant, an “f” sound, which is approximated in Sanskrit by : (ḥ).

हरिस् + खनति = हरिः खनति

haris + khanati = hariḥ khanati

(Hari digs)

(kha) is from the throat-group, so the स् (s) changes to the throat-sibilant, approximated in Sanskrit by : (ḥ).

रामस् + सीतां पश्यति = रामः सीतां पश्यति

rāmas + sītaṁ paśyati = rāmaḥ sītaṁ paśyati

(Rāma sees Sītā)

Before another sibilant, स् (s) also transforms to : (ḥ).

“When met with a voice, S becomes R.”

If स् (s) comes before a voiced sound (which includes both consonants and vowels, except /a): Change the स् (s) to र् (r).

गतिस् + नास्ति = गतिर्नास्ति

gatis + nāsti = gatir-nāsti

(Impossible)

हरेस् + गौस् = हरेर्गौः

hares + gaus = harer-gau

(Hari’s cow)

अग्निस् + इव = अग्निरिव

agnis + iva = agnir-iva

(Fire-like)

विष्णोस् + आयुधम् = विष्णोरायुधम्

viṣṇos + āyudham = viṣṇoyudham

(Viṣṇu’s weapon)

“(But don’t let it double, that would take it too far.)”

If र्र (rr) results from the above process, drop the first र् (r) and make the previous vowel long.

अग्निस् + रोचते = अग्नीरोचते

agnis + rocate = agnī-rocate

(Fire shines)

अग्निस् (agnis) first becomes अग्निर् (agnir), but because the next sound is the र् (r) of रोचते (rocate), the र् (r) at the end of अग्निर् (agnir) is dropped and the previous vowel is made long, resulting in अग्नी (agnī).

“When S comes with A, there’s a few things to test”

There are special considerations for अस् (-as)…

“With consonant voice, make A O and drop S”

If अस् (-as) comes before a Voiced Consonant: Change the (a) to (o) and drop the स् (s).

रामस् + गच्छति = रामो गच्छति

rāmas + gacchati = rāmo gacchati

(Rāma goes)

A short “a” preceded the “s”, which was followed by “g,” a voiced consonant. The “a” changed to “o.” The “s” was destroyed.

पश्यतस् + राज्ञः = पश्यतो राज्ञः

paśyatas + rājñaḥ = paśyato rājñaḥ

(While the king watches)

A short “a” preceded the “s”, which was followed by “r,” a voiced consonant. The “a” changed to “o.” The “s” was destroyed.

“With vowels, if A is the voice than it too [disappears.]”

If अस् (-as) comes before the (a) vowel, do the same as above, and also drop the following (a).

रामस् + अयम् = रामोयम्

rāmas + ayam = ramo’yam

(He is Rāma)

पश्यतस् + अर्जुनस्य = पश्यतोर्जुनस्य

paśyatas + arjunasya = paśyato’rjunasya

(While Arjuna watches)

A short “a” preceded the “s”, which was followed by “a.” The first “a” changed to “o.” The “s” was destroyed. The second “a” was also destroyed.

“If not, only the S has to shoo.”

If अस् (-as) comes before a vowel other than (a), only drop the स् (s), not the vowel.

रामस् + उवाच = राम उवाच

rāmas + uvāca = rāma uvāca

(Rāma said)

बुद्धस् + इव विद्यया = बुद्ध इव विद्यया

buddhas + iva vidyayā = buddha iva vidyayā

(Wise like Buddha)

S also might come with a friend called “Long A”
When that happens, again, only S goes away.

This is a special rule for अास् (-ās). When it comes before any vowel or voiced consonant: just drop the स् (s)

हतास् वीरास् गच्छन्ति स्वर्गलोकम् = हता वीरा गच्छन्ति स्वर्गलोकम्

hatās vīrās gacchanti svargalokam = hatā vīrā gacchanti svargalokam

(Slain heroes go to paradise)

Pronoun exception:

If the root word is सः (saḥ/“he”) or ऐषः (eṣaḥ/“that”), just drop the स् (s), don’t change the (a) to an (o).

ऐषस् + शुकस् + अस्ति = ऐष शुकोस्ति

eṣas + śukas + asti = eṣa śuko ‘sti.

(That is a parrot)

सस् + कृष्णस् = स कृष्णः

sas + kṛṣṇas. = sa kṛṣṇaḥ.

(He is Krishna)

Advertisements

3 thoughts on “Complete Sandhi Mnemonic, Explanation, and Examples for स् (-s)”

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s