Gita 2.13 – Sanskrit Sandhi Illustration

With Sandhi

देहिनोस्मिन्यथादेहे कौमारां यौवनं जरा ।
तथा देहान्तरप्राप्तिर्धीरस्तत्र न मुह्यति ।।

dehino ’smin yathā dehe kaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā
tathā dehāntara-prāptir dhīras tatra na muhyati

Without Sandhi

देहिनः अस्मिन् यथा देहे कौमारम् यौवनम् जरा ।
तथा देह अन्तर प्राप्तिः धीरः तत्र न मूह्यति ।।

dehinaḥ asmin yathā dehe kaumāram yauvanam jara
tathā deha antara prāptiḥ dhīraḥ tatra na muhyati

The Sandhi Rules Used

देहिनोस्मिन् = देहिनःअस्मिन्

Dehino ‘smin = dehinaḥ + asmin

When S (Ḥ) comes with A, there’s a few things to test.
Is that consonant voiced? Then make A O and drop S(Ḥ).
With vowels, if A is the voice than it too
disappears. If not, then only the S (Ḥ) has to shoo”

“Dehinaḥ” is an example of “aḥ” ending a word. The next sound is a vowel. All vowels are voiced, so it triggers the voicing rule, converting the “A” to an “O” (dehinoḥ) and dropping the “S” (dehino). Note: the final “s” has already converted to “Ḥ”. Finally, since the vowel is an “A” then “it too disappears” (dehino ’smin)

कौमारं यौवनं जरा = कौमारम् यौवनम् जरा

Kaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā = kaumāram + yauvanam + jarā

“M becomes a simple dot, way up in the air.”

Coming before a voiced consonant, M comverts to Ṁ.

देहान्तर = देह अन्तर

Dehāntara = deha + antara

“A makes everyone stronger.”

प्राप्तिर्धीरस्तत्र = प्राप्तिः धीरः तत्र

Prāptir dhīras tatra = prāptiḥ + dhīraḥ + tatra

Dhīraḥ: “When at the end, S becomes the visarga
But if met without voice, it converts to that varga”

The “ḥ” at the end of dhīraḥ is an “s” in disguise, it has “become the visarga.” It is met by a sound that has no voice, “t” so it converts to the sibilant in “t”’s varga (dental), becoming “S” (dhīras)

Prāptiḥ: “When met with a voice, then the S becomes R.”

Again, the “ḥ” at the end of prāptiḥ is an “s” in disguise,. It is met by a sound that has voice, “dh” so it becomes “r” (prāptir)


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