Category Archives: Reference Tables

Pronouns

Third Person

Masculine (“he”)
तद् Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) सः

saḥ
तौ

tan
ते

te
Case 2 (object) तम्

tam
तान्

tān
Case 6 (“of:) तस्य

tasya
तयोः

tayoḥ
तेषम्

teṣām
Neuter (“it”)
तद् Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) तत्

tat

ते

te

तानि

tāni
Case 2 (object)
Case 6 (“of:)

Second Person

(“You”)
त्वद् Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) त्वम्

tvam
युवाम्

yuvām
यूयम्

yūyam
Case 2 (object) युष्मान्

yuṣmān
Case 6 (“of:) तव

tava
युवयोः

yuvayoḥ
युष्माकम्

yuṣmākam

First Person

(“I”)
मद् Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) अहम्

aham
आवाम्

āvām
वयम्

vayam
Case 2 (object) माम्

mām
अस्मान्

asmān
Case 6 (“of:) मम

mama
आवयोः

āvayoḥ
अस्माकम्

asmākam
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Sandhi Tables (Word Blending)

Vowel + Vowel

Across the top of the table find the last letter of word 1, and down the left of the table find the first letter of word 2. The cell where that column and row intersect is the combined vowel sound. When there are two letters in a cell, the second represents the changed first letter of word two.

A I E AI U O AU
A ā ya e ā a va o āva ra
Ā ā a ā ā ā a ā āvā
I e ī a ī ā ī a ī āvī
E ai ye a e ā e ve a e āve re
AI ai yai a ai ā ai vai a ai āvai rai
U o a ū ā ū ū a ū āvū
O au yo a o ā o vo a o āvo ro
AU au yau a au ā au vau a au āvau rau
ar yṛ a ṛ ā ṛ vṛ a ṛ āvṛ

You might quickly notice that after you get past the “a” column, things start to follow a definitie pattern. The vowel at the end of word 1 tends to change, and the vowel at the beginning of word 2 tends to remain whatever it originally was.

Consonant + Consonant

The top row shows the possible final letters of Sanskrit words. The left column shows the possible initial letters. The intersecting cell shows how the final letter will change when it blends with the initial letter. If letters are in (parens) the letters in (parens) indicate the changed initial letter.

 

 

k

t

p

ḥ/r

āḥ

aḥ

n

m

un
voiced

k(h)

c(h)

c

ś

ṁś

ṭ(h)

ṁṣ

t(h)

s

ṁs

p(h)

voiced

g(h)

g

d

b

r

ā

o

j(h)

j

ñ

ḍ(h)

d(h)

d

b(h)

nasals

n

n

m

m

semi
vowels

y/v

g

d

b

r

zero

l

l

r

l

silibants

ś

c (ch)

ñ(ś/ch)

ṣ/s

aspirant

h

g (gh)

ḍ (ḍh)

d (dh)

b (bh)

r

ā

o

vowels

 

g

d

b

a

n/nn

ṅ/ṅṅ

  • (un)Voiced: If the second word has a voiced consonant, the end of the first word has to change to the voiced version.
  • Nasals: If word two starts with a nasal, the ending of word one becomes a nasal, too.
  • Semivowels: If word two starts with a semivowel the letter at the end of word one has to become “voiced.”
  • SilibantsIf word two stars with some type of s the last letter of word one tends not to change.
  • Vowels: If word two starts with a vowel and word one ends with a consonant, that consonant becomes voiced.
  • ḥ ṛ: If word one ends with a dotted h or r, and word two starts with a voiceless consonant – the end of word one changes to one of the hissing sounds corresponding to the throat position of the consonant starting word two. 

Letters / Sounds

Consonants

CLICKY VOICEY
LIGHT BREATHY LIGHT BREATHY NASAL SEMI’S S’
Throat k kh g gh
Back-Mouth c ch j jh ñ y  ś
Roof of Mouth ṭh ḍh r  ṣ
Teeth t th d dh n l  s
Lips p ph b bh m v

Vowels

Weak Stronger
a ā
e ai
i ī
o au
u ū

Another system of organizing vowel sounds:

NORMAL a,ā i,ī u,ū ṛ,ṝ ḷ,ḹ
STRONG a e o ar al
STRONGEST ā ai au ār āl